Corinthian War

Background

  • Spartan king Agesilaus had been successfuly campaigning in Ionian Greece (Asia Minor) against Persians since 398 BC
    • Thebes, Corinth and Athens refused to participate in this expedition, they are becoming more and more dissatisfied with Spartan hegemony
    • Persians, unable to stop this campaign, indirectly pay several Greek cities (mainly Thebes), to incite some actions against Sparta
  • Former Spartan allies, Corinth, Thebes and Argos along with defeated Athens and other smaller cities forge an alliance at a council in Corinth in 395 BC

War

Battle of Halliartus

  • 395 BC
  • Instead of attacking Sparta directly, Thebes had provoked the initial battle at Haliartus in Northwest Greece, by inducing one of their allies to raid Phocis (a Spartan ally)
  • Thebes win this war
    • Spartan commander Lysander is slain in this battle

Battle of Nemea

  • 394 BC
  • Also known as the battle of Corinth
  • Larger battle, 14,000–18,000 Spartans against 24,000–26,000 allies
  • Allies are defeated with twice as many casualties as Sparta
  • But Spartans were unable to force their way past Corinth, so they returned home

Battle of Coronea

  • 394 BC
  • King Agesiliaus returns from Ionia
  • 15,000 hoplites under Agesilius vs 20,000 hoplites of allies
    • Final losses are 350 Spartans and 600 allies
  • Spartans eventually win, but they are severly damaged (Agesilaus was wounded and needed to be evacuated from Boetia)

Battle of Cnidus

  • 394 BC
  • 120 Spartan triremes under Pisander are destroyed by a much larger and superior Persian fleet under Pharnabazus and Conon (Athenian general)
    • Pisander is slain in the battle
  • As a result of this battle, Greek cities in Asia Minor came back under Persian control

Lots of smaller battles and naval raids for seven years afterwards.

Peace of Antalcidas

  • 387 BC
  • Also known as the King’s Peace
  • Guaranteed by the Persian king Artaxerxes
    • Named after Antalcidas, the Spartan diplomat who traveled to Persia to negotiate the terms
  • Allies were forced to the negotiating table
  • The treaty has been widely viewed as disgraceful
    • Ionia and Cyprus belong were abandoned to Persia
    • The union (sympoliteia) of Corinth and Argos was canceled and both states were forced to be seperate
    • Boetian league (led by Thebes) was dismantled
    • Only the Peloponnesian league and helots were overlooked as Sparta and Persia were to oversee the peace