Macedonian Conquest of Greece

  • Under the reign of Philip II, Macedonia rose to great prominence and within a single generation was master of Greece

Conquest

  • When Philip II came to power, Macedonia was a poor half-civilized country (forx example, it submitted to Persians during the Persian Wars)
    • But with his brilliant leadership, he created the best fighting force in the ancient world
  • Macedonia actively tried to destabilize Greek states
    • For example, supporting colonies rebelling against Athens or interfering in politics
    • Demosthenes spoke against Philip’s incursions, to this day, a speech that is in a violent opposition to someone is called philippic
  • After meddling in the Sacred War, Macedonian army was stopped by the combining forces of Athens and Sparta at Thermopylae
    • But that was only a temporary set back
  • Macedonia continued to consolidate its power

Battle of Chaeronea

  • 338 BC
  • Macedonians under Philip against the Athenians and Thebans under Chares and Theogenes
  • Macedonian victory
    • Massive losses for the allies

Battle of Carts

  • 336 BC
  • First major battle led by Alexander the Great
  • Macedonians defeated a rebellious Thracian mountain tribe

Siege of Thebes

  • 335 BC
  • The city was captured Alexander the Great
  • Six thousand inhabitants of Thebes were massacred and the city razed to the ground

Macedonia slowly captured and united all of Greece. There were a few rebellions, but all were suppressed.