Macedonian Conquest of Persia


  • Philip II was planning an invasion of Persia before he died
  • Alexander spent over a year making preparations to carryout his father’s plans
  • Finally he gathered and army of 35,000 picked men and crossed the Hellespont


Battle of Granicus

  • 334 BC
  • Macedonian army fought against 40,000 Persians and (mostly Ionian) Greek mercenaries
  • Victory for Alexander, heavy loss for Persians

Most cities in Asia Minor put up little resistance, so Macedonians spent the next year consolidating his power in the region before moving on.

Battle of Issus

  • 333 BC
  • Persian king Darius gathered an army of over 60,000 (10,000 of which at least were Greek mercenaries)
  • Another victory for Alexander, Persians defeated with a great loss
  • As a result of this battle most of old Babylonian territory (including Egypt) was conquered by Alexander

Siege of Gaza

  • 332 BC
  • Macedonian victory

Siege of Tyre

  • 331 BC
  • Conquering Phoenician cities was generally a bit tougher
  • Still, another victory for Alexander

Battle of Gaugamela

  • 331 BC
  • Macedonian army fought against 4 times as big Persian army
  • This victory definitely put Persia under Alexander’s rule

Battle of Hydaspes

  • 327 BC
  • Fought against army of Indian king Porus
  • Victory, but Alexander was so impressed with Porus' resistance that he appointed him as a Satrap of all India

By this conquest, Hellenic culture spread as far Bactria.

Alexander wanted to push further east (to the Ganga valley), but his army refused to go on. So he returned to Babylon and reigned there for a few years before dying.